The copyright symbol

Two copyright symbols generally used

Copyright

The © ‘C in a circle’ is the normal copyright symbol and can be applied to most types of work. it can be found in most word processor (or similar) programs using options such as:

  • In Microsoft Word:

    Insert menu - Symbol (or Alt + Ctrl + C).

  • In Open Office:

    Insert - Special Character.

  • In Lotus Word Pro:

    Text - Insert other - Symbol.

Web site developers will normally use the HTML equivalent which is ‘©’ or the Unicode for the character which is ‘©’.

Phonographic rights

The phonogram symbol ‘P in a circle’, is referred to as the sound recording, phonorecords, phonogram or phonographic copyright symbol.

Sound recordings have a separate copyright that is distinct from that of the underlying work. The duration of this will typically run from the date of publication of the sound recording and the phonogram copyright character is used to denote this particular right that exists in sound recordings.

The phonogram copyright character can be found in the ‘Webdings’ font on most computers, and the UTF8 character set code for the character is ‘℗’.

Unfortunately for web site developers, Internet Explorer (including IE 7) and Konqueror browsers, still do not fully support the Unicode character set and will not display this correctly, an image is therefore required to display this online.

Further reading

For information on wording your notice and where to use, please see fact sheet P-03: Using copyright notices.